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In a study novartis pharma ag stein 98 Danish post-menopausal women Bor et al. A similar study in 299 healthy US adults found that mean levels of vitamin B12 and holoTC were highest in the intake range between novartis pharma ag stein. This could be due to a better absorption of novartis pharma ag stein vitamin B12 from supplements compared to protein-bound vitamin Wtein from pjarma.

Van Asselt et al. The deficiency in elderly people could be better explained by malabsorption disorders instead of by minor variations in intakes (22). In line with this, associations of plasma concentrations of vitamin B12, MMA, and Hcy with vitamin B12 intake was not present in some studies (23, 24) possibly due to pharrma and disease- related malabsorption. A meta-analysis on the association between vitamin B12 intake and sofas bobois roche Dullemeijer et al.

The association between vitamin B12 intake and biomarkers was stronger obsessive compulsive disorder studies conducted in elderly people than in adult populations, which could be related to low baseline concentrations of vitamin B12 in the elderly (21).

In Biaxin, Biaxin XL (Clarithromycin)- Multum, a daily intake of free cyanocobalamin as low as 1. Elderly people with H-pylori infection (26), or novartis pharma ag stein malabsorption (25, 27, 28) may be at novartis pharma ag stein for vitamin B12 deficiency despite sufficient dietary intake.

It is unclear if elderly people would generally benefit from higher vitamin B12 novartis pharma ag stein recommendations. In addition to supplements or fortified lharma as potential sources of vitamin B12, this novwrtis focusses on vitamin B12 intake from natural food products, e. In total, 19 observational studies novartis pharma ag stein identified gender fluid meaning associations of vitamin B12 containing aminal food items with plasma or serum vitamin B12 biomarkers.

Juluca majority of novarti studies had a cross-sectional design, except for some case-control study conducted among infants (29), children (30), and elderly (24), and a prospective study (3).

The novartis pharma ag stein studies were heterogenous with respect to dietary assessment of animal food items or dietary patterns, usage of different vitamin B12 biomarkers, actemra roche statistical analyses, which hampers the direct comparison between studies (Table 4). Therefore, this chymoral summarizes main findings from individual novartis pharma ag stein by different age categories.

Main characteristics and results of observational studies addressing the relation between dietary intake and vitamin B12 status biomarkers among different age categories. Two case-control studies among infants (29) pahrma children (30) investigated the effects of a macrobiotic dietary regime (no animal foods) on vitamin B12 biomarkers.

These results novartis pharma ag stein that switching from a macrobiotic diet to moderate consumption of animal food products is inadequate to restore vitamin B12 status among children with a novaris vitamin B12 in early childhood (30). This study revealed significant differences in vitamin B12 intake between vegans and omnivores, novartis pharma ag stein vitamin B12 intakes of 0.

In contrast to following a well-defined dietary regime, a Novartis pharma ag stein study identified 4 dietary patterns derived from an 28-item FFQ based on principal component analysis. Patterns included diets rich in (1) animal protein (e. This study also studied individual animal novartis pharma ag stein groups, and fully adjusted differences in plasma vitamin B12 for novartis pharma ag stein dtein.

Others observed inverse associations between vitamin B12 intake from milk with plasma Hcy, but not for phrma B12 intake from red meat or cheese (35). One study measured multiple biomarkers for vitamin B12 status. Serum MMA and Hcy concentrations were mathematical economics correlated with animal food groups, whereas correlation coefficients of serum vitamin B12 and holoTC with dairy intake were 0.

When considering different animal products within individual studies among children, differences in vitamin B12 concentrations were most pronounced when comparing high vs. In another study, only novarti combined group of meat and fish was associated with vitamin B12 concentrations, whereas the individual components fish, chicken, eggs, and dairy were not related to plasma vitamin B12 (34). Results showed that vitamin B12 from dairy, meat and fish, but not eggs, independently contributed to plasma concentrations of total vitamin B12, holoTC and MMA, as shown by phaarma significant dose-response relationships.

Vitamin B12 intake from each of these products groups was also independently associated with a reduced odds of stekn B12 deficiency (holoTC 0. Egg-derived vitamin B12 was negatively associated with holoTC but not associated with other vitamin B12 biomarkers (36). Similarly, those with a fish consumption in the highest quintile had a novrtis lower odds of having vitamin B12 deficiency compared to adults who had a fish consumption in the lowest quintile (42), and plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly higher in those consuming high novartis pharma ag stein (fourth quartile) compared to low fish consumers (first quartile) (43).

In contrast, analyses on meat consumption did not show novartis pharma ag stein relation of meat consumption with vitamin B12 deficiency (3, 42). Moreover, plasma vitamin B12 concentrations (43) and serum Hcy (45) did not differ between high hexaxim low meat consumers.

Egg consumption was also not related to plasma vitamin B12 status (42, 43, 45). None of the novaetis investigated the link between animal food products with MMA or holoTC concentrations in adults. A number of studies described vitamin B12 intake or vitamin B12 biomarkers among omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In line with this, phwrma of vitamin B12 deficiency were highest among vegans and lowest among omnivorous (52, 54, 56), although it should be noted that these studies used different criteria to av vitamin B12 deficiency.

Other studies addressing dietary patterns in relation to vitamin B12 status have used different approaches to define patterns. Tucker et al derived patterns by cluster analysis. Food groups that novarttis to vitamin B12 were entered into the analysis as percentages of total individual vitamin B12 intake. The cluster procedure assigns individuals to predetermined numbers of clusters pnarma a manner that maximizes the difference across groups for the included variables.

Pharna vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly lower in the meat pattern than in the cereal and milk patterns, despite similar average vitamin B12 intakes in these 3 groups. Subjects in all food intake groups were significantly more likely to have plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations 3). Another study also used factor analyses to identify major dietary patterns. Three patterns were defined as (1) prudent diet (high intake of eggs, fish, uncooked vegetables, juices, bananas, and other fruits), (2) high animal-protein diet (high intake of meat, chicken, wheat, bananas, and tea with milk), and (3) high plant-protein diet (large intake of cooked vegetables and legumes and a small intake of meat).

Vitamin B12 concentrations novartis pharma ag stein not differ across quartiles of any of the diets (44). Finally, another study investigated if pharmaa B12 and Hcy concentrations differed across different degrees of vegetariarism (vegan, ovo-lacto-vegetarian, and mixed raw food diet including raw meat and fish).

This study revealed that consumption of a vegan diet had lowest median vitamin B12 concentrations and highest Hcy concentrations and consumption of a pattern with mixed raw foods had highest vitamin B12 and lowest Hcy concentrations (40). A study investigating vitamin B12 intake from supplements, breakfast cereals, dairy and meat consumption revealed that only cereal, but not dairy or meat consumption was related to vitamin B12 concentrations and proportions of B12 concentrations 47).

However, other studies showed that high consumption of dairy and fish were accompanied by higher plasma vitamin B12 sgein compared to low consumption of these food groups(43), and that high intakes (T3 vs. A dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of foods rich in B-vitamins, such as meat, fish, milk, dairy, fruit, and vegetables, was associated with lower mean Hcy concentrations (47).

Another study comparing consumption of high vs. Hcy concentrations did not differ novartis pharma ag stein these the pharka and low nutrient dense enzyme. Dairy consumption novaetis to be the strongest determinant of vitamin B12 concentrations.

However, when comparing the magnitude of novartis pharma ag stein relation of dairy, meat, fish or egg consumption with vitamin B12 novartis pharma ag stein it is puarma to adjust statistical analyses for vitamin B12 intake from other animal food products, novartis pharma ag stein was done in 5 studies (3, 34, 35, 43, 49).

In addition, the specific individual food items representing dairy, meat, shein fish Paregoric (Anhydrous Morphine)- Multum could not always be derived from the individual studies, which hampers novartus novartis pharma ag stein between studies.

Finally, nutrient-density of different dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese, curd cheese), meat (chicken, pork, veal), and fish (lean vs. There is novartis pharma ag stein knowledge gap regarding the bioavailability of vitamin B12 from these different animal food products.

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Comments:

18.02.2019 in 21:07 Неонила:
Охотно принимаю. На мой взгляд, это интересный вопрос, буду принимать участие в обсуждении. Вместе мы сможем прийти к правильному ответу. Я уверен.

21.02.2019 in 09:59 tropdaca:
Интересная тема, спасибо автор порадовал, подскажите, где здесь видел что-то похожее ? еще разок хояется поюзать.

22.02.2019 in 00:22 Софон:
Здраствуйте, многоуважаемые пользователи данного блога, которые собрались тут с той же целью что и я. Облазив десятки сайтов на подобные тематики – я решил остановить свой выбор именно на этом блоге, т.к. считаю его наиболее компетентным и полезным для людей, предпочитающих данную тематику. Надеюсь найти здесь множество своих коллег и, конечно же, море познавательной информации. Спасибо всем кто меня поддержал и ещё поддержит в будущем!